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    全球化背景下,聽世界各地的建筑師們講述不同的現狀和挑戰第1張圖片
    Marmol Radzinger. Image © Marc Goodwin

    建筑是一種異質性的實踐:是什么造就了世界各地的建筑師
    Architecture as a Heterogenous Practice: What is to be an Architect Around the World

    由專筑網邢子,小R編譯

    雖然建筑本身具有普遍性,但在世界各地的日常實踐中仍有差異,從建筑師的專業要求和責任,當地環境、歷史和建筑習俗,到當地的優先事項和面臨的挑戰,均受到各種因素的影響。在一個全球化的世界中,建筑似乎變得更加統一,那么當地的背景和特點如何塑造建筑環境呢?這篇文章挖掘了建筑行業內的共同點和差異性。

    建筑師們擁有相似的教育背景,并了解自身所處的文化、歷史和地理環境,他們在世界各地工作,在高度多樣化的背景下創作出了堪稱典范的建筑,全球化和信息的快速傳播使建筑越來越國際化。然而,背景和建筑環境的多樣性使得建筑實踐具有差異性,全球的挑戰在各地以特殊的方式被解決,建筑師們面臨著不同的優先事項。在ArchDaily,我們的編輯和撰稿人分布在世界各地,以下對一系列問題的回答代表了他們對所居住國家的建筑行業的洞察。

    Although architecture itself is universal, the day-to-day practice still varies across the world, influenced by a wide range of factors, from the professional requirements and responsibilities of an architect, the local environment, history and building customs, to local priorities and challenges. In a hyper-connected world, where architecture seems to become more uniform, how do local contexts and characteristics shape the built environment? This article taps into the commonalities and the variations within the architecture profession.
    Sharing a similar educational background and the tools to understand the cultural, historical and geographical context they operate in, architects work in all parts of the world, producing exemplary architecture in highly diverse contexts. Globalization and the fast dissemination of information have made architecture increasingly international. However, the diversity of contexts and built environments make for a heterogeneous architecture practice, where global challenges are addressed in particular manners at the local level, and architects face different sets of priorities. Here at ArchDaily, our editors and contributors are located worldwide, and the following answers to a series of questions represent their insight into the architectural profession in the countries they reside in.


    教育背景和職業
    The Educational Background and the Profession


    全球化背景下,聽世界各地的建筑師們講述不同的現狀和挑戰第2張圖片
    MAD Architects Studio. Image © Marc Goodwin

    全世界的建筑師都接受類似的教育,以相同的參考和價值觀為標志,在理論或技術重點之間有一定程度的差異。雖然各國的專業要求不同,但整個建筑教育的一個共同點是學術和實際操作之間的差異,Archdaily的讀者、編輯團隊和知名建筑師都對此表示遺憾。在歐洲,與藝術界類似,建筑教學側重于其西方的歷史和發展,低估了這個范圍之外的重要因素,一體化的建筑市場和各國之間勞動力和學生流動性的增加,以及歐盟采取的標準化措施,正在塑造建筑教育和實踐中的共同經驗,歐洲建筑師委員會定期對整個歐洲的職業進行全面分析。

    在你們國家,建筑教育的重點是什么,建筑師的責任是什么?

    Antonia(智利):在智利,建筑曾經是一個非常精英化的職業,在一些機構中,教育的重點仍然是設計非凡的建筑,而不顧資源的使用。

    Fernanda(智利):我認為我們正面臨著這樣一個時刻:更多的人意識到建筑不僅僅是建筑和施工,還有很多生產和提供建筑的方式。15年前,建筑師主要是概念性的思考者,而今天的建筑學教育同時注重于建筑師如何在政治、通訊媒體、教育和創業方面為社會做出貢獻。

    Christele(黎巴嫩):在我看來,黎巴嫩的建筑教育相當多樣化,盡管它沒有涵蓋該領域所有的當代問題。建筑起初受到法國美術學院的啟發,這些年來,這個行業面臨著許多障礙,特別是隨著工程類"建筑師"的崛起。

    Hana(黎巴嫩):[關于建筑師作為起草人]不幸的是,在許多情況下,建筑師沒有完成足夠的現場考察和檢查,從而讓項目經理或承包商來進行材料規格的制定。

    Kaley(美國):[選擇一個特定的職業道路]在學術界和建筑實踐之間產生了巨大的差距,畢業后,學生們往往會對日常工作的內容感到驚訝。

    Eduardo(巴西):建筑師的受眾面很小,主要從事住宅或企業項目的工作,而且由于收費很低,建筑師通常把項目發展成一個執行項目,缺乏細節。建筑師或工程師通常負責施工現場。

    Fabian(阿根廷):一般來說,有一種趨勢是更多地關注形式的設計,具有批判性的眼光,對技術的限制不大,在學術界和專業界之間通常存在著巨大的差距。

    Architects worldwide share a similar education, marked by the same references and values, with a degree of variation between a theoretical or a technical focus. While professional requirements differ from country to country, a commonality across architecture education is the discrepancy between academia and the actual practice, lamented by Archdaily's readership, editorial team and renowned architects. In Europe, similar to the art world, architecture teaching focuses on its Western history and development, underplaying the significant figures outside of this range. An integrated construction market and increased workforce and student mobility between countries, as well as steps taken by the EU towards standardisation, are shaping a shared experience within architecture education and the practice, with The Architects' Council of Europe periodically delivering a comprehensive analysis of the profession across Europe.

    What is the primary focus of architecture education in your country, and what are architects' responsibilities?
    Antonia (Chile): Architecture in Chile used to be a very elitist profession, and in some institutions, the focus of education is still designing extraordinary architecture disregarding the resources.
    Fernanda (Chile): I think we are facing a moment in which more people are aware that architecture goes beyond just building and construction and that there are many ways of producing and delivering architecture. Fifteen years ago, the architect was taught mainly as a conceptual thinker. Still, today's education in architecture is also focused on how an architect can contribute to society in politics, communication media, education, and entrepreneurship.
    Christele (Lebanon): Architecture Education in Lebanon is quite diverse, in my opinion, even though it doesn't cover all contemporary and present-day aspects of the field. Inspired at first by the teachings of the French Ecole des Beaux-Arts, the profession faced many hurdles throughout the years, especially with the rise of Engineers that "architect".
    Hana (Lebanon): [on the architect as draftperson] Unfortunately, in many cases, not enough site visits and inspections are accomplished, leaving it to the Project Manager or Contractor to proceed with material specifications.
    Kaley (United States): [choosing a specific career path] creates a huge gap between academia and the practice of architecture. Upon graduation, students are often surprised by what the day-to-day job entails.
    Eduardo (Brazil): The architect is restricted to a tiny audience, working mainly on residential or corporate projects. And as the fees are low, the architect usually develops the project into an executive project (very little detailed). Builders or engineers usually run the construction site.
    Fabian (Argentina): In general, there is a tendency to focus more on the design of the form, with a critical look and not so restrictive with the technical resolutions. There is usually a huge gap between academia and the professional world.


    當地的挑戰
    The local challenges


    全球化背景下,聽世界各地的建筑師們講述不同的現狀和挑戰第3張圖片
    Morro Do Papagaio, Belo Horizont. Image © Johnny Miller

    建筑師面臨著諸如快速城市化、氣候變化和不平等的全球性挑戰。然而,每個地區都以一種源于特定歷史或經濟發展的特定方式來解決這些問題和其他地方性問題。在整個歐洲,不同的文化背景和經濟發展水平在各國如何處理和優先考慮氣候變化方面造成了巨大的差距,因此,新歐洲包豪斯倡議旨在創建一個統一的方法,為所有歐盟國家提供實施碳中性的手段。在東歐,社會主義時代的大型建筑和城市空間仍然構成了具有挑戰性的建筑遺產,與當代城市環境和塑造當今城市的價值觀相抵觸。

    在你的國家,哪些與建筑環境有關的緊迫問題經常被討論?建筑師如何解決這些問題?

    Antonia(智利):在智利,這與城市規劃和市場法規有關,涉及不同的挑戰,如限制城市擴張。今天,在當前政治環境的激勵下,建筑師們越來越多地參與到公共討論中。

    Fernanda(智利):我們討論社會住房的質量和尊嚴,市中心建筑的密度以及公共空間和公園的缺乏。2019年,一群年輕的建筑師在社會表現的中心進行了一次有趣的設計,使社會住房問題變得明顯,他們以1:1的比例繪制了不同的"納米公寓"的平面圖,這些公寓由于價格高且缺乏生活尊嚴而引起了很大的爭議。

    Christele(黎巴嫩):背景的概念非常重要,特別是在黎巴嫩的情況下,建筑法已經產生了典型和相同的結構,并沒有考慮到整合、場地或結構。對整個國家來說,它們并不靈活,也沒有標準,它們不區分農村和城市,或者歷史和現代等等。再加上完全沒有總體規劃和策略,加之神圣的開發權,對破壞建筑遺產和消除傳統城市和社會結構負有主要責任。

    Kaley(美國):目前,我們面臨著兩個巨大的壓力,一個是我們如何能設計出更公平的城市,并創造出為服務較少的社區提供機會的設計,另一個是我們如何能以一種減少碳足跡的方式進行設計,減輕我們對氣候變化的影響。

    Dima(瑞士):肯定是可再生能源,這是一個全國性的課題,在各種項目中都在處理,大多數公司都有一個到2050年達到100%綠色可持續的計劃。

    Eduardo(巴西):關于對低收入家庭的技術援助已經說了很多,也就是說,政府可以付錢給建筑師,讓他為有需要的家庭設計改造或新建建筑。換句話說,是增加建筑師行動的領域。

    Fabian(阿根廷):住房和非正規住區的城市化問題一直是討論的焦點,主要從學術界著手,并經常被用作政治中的承諾。無論如何,最近的爭論正在轉向經濟和環境危機的全球挑戰。

    Architects are faced with global challenges such as rapid urbanization, climate change and inequality. However, each region addresses these issues and other local ones in a specific way that stems from a particular history or economic development. Across Europe, the different cultural backgrounds and levels of economic development have created a huge gap in how countries address and prioritise climate change; therefore, The New European Bauhaus initiative aims to create a unified approach and provide all EU countries with the means to implement carbon neutrality. In Eastern Europe, the Socialist era's large-scale architecture and urban spaces still constitute a challenging legacy, at odds with contemporary urban environments and the values shaping cities today.

    What pressing issue related to the built environment is often discussed in your country? How are architects addressing it?
    Antonia (Chile): In Chile, it’s related to urban planning and market regulations, involving different challenges such as limiting urban sprawl. Today, architects are getting more involved in public discussion motivated by the current political climate.
    Fernanda (Chile): We discuss the quality (and dignity) of social housing, the density of the city centre buildings, and the lack of public space and parks. In 2019, a group of young architects made the social housing issue visible with an interesting intervention in the center of the social manifestations, drawing in 1:1 scale the floor plans of different “nano apartments” that have been very polemic due to their high prices and lack of dignity.
    Christele (Lebanon): The idea of context is very important, especially in the case of Lebanon. Construction laws have generated typical and identical structures that don’t consider integration, site or fabric. Not flexible and standard for the country's entirety, they don’t differentiate between the rural and the urban, or the historical and the contemporary etc. Coupled with a complete absence of master plans and visions and with sacred development rights, they are primarily responsible for destroying architectural gems and eradicating traditional urban and social fabrics.
    Kaley (United States): There are two big pressures that we face currently. One has to do with how we can design more equitable cities, and create designs that provide opportunities for lesser served communities, and the other is how we can design in a way that reduces our carbon footprint and mitigate our impact on climate change.
    Dima (Switzerland): Definitely renewable energy. It is a nationwide subject that is being tackled in all sorts of projects. Most companies have a plan of becoming 100% green by 2050.
    Eduardo (Brazil): Much has been said about technical assistance for low-income families. That is, the government can pay the architect to design a renovation or new building for a family in need. In other words, the main thing is to increase the field of action.
    Fabian (Argentina): Access to housing and the urbanization of informal settlements are always in the focus of the discussion, being approached mainly from the academy and often used as a promise in political campaigns. In any case, the debate lately is turning towards other aspects of the global challenges of the economic and environmental crisis.


    當地環境如何塑造建筑
    How Local Context Shapes Architecture


    全球化背景下,聽世界各地的建筑師們講述不同的現狀和挑戰第4張圖片
    Wall House by Anupama Kundoo. Image © Javier Callejas

    無論當代建筑語言多么普遍,當地的環境、文化和歷史在塑造建筑環境方面仍然起著關鍵作用。東歐國家的社會主義歷史留下了對公共建筑和城市空間的投資不足,這使得建筑師的工作僅限于住房項目和商業開發。然而,一系列的競賽和國際知名的項目正在為當地建筑師開辟一系列新的可能性。

    在塑造你們國家建筑的過程中,發揮重要作用的地方特征有哪些?

    Antonia(智利):智利景觀的多樣性可能是其建筑聞名世界的最重要因素。

    Christele(黎巴嫩):文化遺產、歷史、當地知識和社會生活方式在塑造黎巴嫩的建筑環境方面發揮著重要作用。這些特征(以及其他許多特征)應該被納入每一個概念性的建筑設計過程中,以產生綜合的建筑,它看起來更親近人民,講述他們的故事,并對周圍環境作出反應,并成為敘事的一部分。

    Hana(黎巴嫩):在黎巴嫩,有許多空間和法規方面的限制往往會影響到建筑。不幸的是,需要盡可能多地利用你能發揮的空間,這正在成為這個城市的一個趨勢。不過,在集中對文物建筑和石屋的修復和恢復方面還是有一些非常有趣的嘗試。

    Kaley(美國):這很有趣,因為沒有"美國"風格,在歷史上我們是一個從別人那里借鑒的國家,并完全按照原樣建造,或者以新的方式改造,F在,我們對建設更好、更高、更快感興趣,這就造成了超高層摩天大樓的泛濫,因為很多項目都是開發商私人出資。

    Dima(瑞士):簡潔的線條是常用的風格,每個地區都制定了自己的建筑規則和要求,所以建筑師不能創造過分異類的項目,也不能試驗幾何圖形。如果讓我簡單描述一下瑞士建筑,我認為功能和人類需求是第一位的。

    Eduardo(巴西):巴西是如此之大,以至于要歸納出任何東西都是有難度的,當我們看到一些公共設計競賽或較大規模的建筑時,所謂的Escola Paulista在這里十分盛行。

    Fabian(阿根廷):規章制度在歷史上對塑造阿根廷的建筑具有根本性的作用,它產生了有序的城市,如拉普拉塔,或目前的布宜諾斯艾利斯市,它是世界上人口最多的20個城市之一。

    However universal is the contemporary architecture language, local environment, culture and history still play a crucial role in shaping the built environment. The Socialist past of Eastern European countries has left behind a lack of investment in public buildings and urban spaces, which restricted the work of architects to housing projects and commercial developments. However, a series of competitions and internationally acclaimed projects are opening up a new series of possibilities for local architects.

    What is a local characteristic that plays an important role in shaping the architecture in your country?
    Antonia (Chile): Probably the diversity of landscapes in Chile is the most important factor in its world-famous architecture.
    Christele (Lebanon): Cultural heritage, history, local know-how and societal ways of living play an essential role in shaping the Lebanese built environment. These characteristics (with many others) should be incorporated in every conceptual architectural process to generate an integrated architecture that looks like its people, tells their stories, reacts to the surroundings and is part of the narrative.
    Hana (Lebanon): There are many spatial and regulatory constraints that tend to shape architecture in Lebanon. Unfortunately, the need to utilize as much of the space as you can afford is becoming a recurrent trend in the city. Still, some very interesting endeavors focus on the rehabilitation and restoration of heritage buildings and stone houses.
    Kaley (United States): It’s interesting because there is no “American” style; we are historically a country that borrowed from others and reused that exactly as it is or invented it in a new way. Right now, we are interested in building better, taller, and faster, and it’s created a proliferation of supertall skyscrapers (at least in NYC) because many projects are funded privately through developers.
    Dima (Switzerland): clean lines are the go-to style. Each canton sets its own architecture rules and requirements, so architects can’t create over-the-top projects or experiment with geometry. If I were to describe Swiss architecture briefly, I would say functionality and human needs come first.
    Eduardo (Brazil): Brazil is so big that it is challenging to generalize anything. We have a prevalence of the so-called Escola Paulista when we see a few public design competitions or larger constructions.
    Fabian (Argentina): The regulation historically had a fundamental role in shaping the architecture of Argentina, which gave rise to orderly cities such as La Plata, or the case of the current city of Buenos Aires, which is among the 20 most populated cities in the world.

    全球化背景下,聽世界各地的建筑師們講述不同的現狀和挑戰第5張圖片
    Casa Tejida by Santiago Pradilla. Image © Federico Cairoli

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