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    適用、經濟、美觀的絕佳詮釋 | 塞內加爾Tambacounda醫院第1張圖片

    Tambacounda Hospital / Manuel Herz Architects

    由專筑網邢子,小R編譯

    背景:Tambacounda婦幼醫院建立在Albers基金會和Le Korsa在塞內加爾東部農村地區15年工作的基礎上,為響應Josef和Anni Albers的共同精神和信念,即使用"最小的手段獲得最大的效果",這個項目遠遠超出了單一的建筑結構,它將自己嵌入到當地社區、經濟和景觀中。

    Background. The Tambacounda Maternity and Paediatric hospital builds upon 15 years of extraordinary work in rural eastern Senegal by the Albers Foundation and Le Korsa. Echoing Josef and Anni Albers’ shared ethos and belief in the use of ‘minimal means for maximum effect’, this project goes far beyond a single architectural structure, embedding itself within the local community, economy and landscape.

    適用、經濟、美觀的絕佳詮釋 | 塞內加爾Tambacounda醫院第2張圖片

    正是本著這種精神,2005年,基金會主任Nicholas Fox Weber建立了Le Korsa,以涵蓋基金會在該地區的慈善活動。從那時起,基金會和Le Korsa為塞內加爾農村社區提供了文化、教育和衛生領域的支持。2015年,他們創立了THREAD,這是一個由建筑公司Toshiko Mori無償為Sinthian農村當地居民設計的文化中心,自建立以來,它促進了當地社區和國際居民之間的文化交流。在教育領域,基金會和Le Korsa去年在Fass村建造了一所小學,也是由Toshiko Mori設計,這是該地區110多個村莊中第一所在傳統古蘭經教學之外提供世俗教育的學校。這兩座建筑都有對Josef和Anni的實踐和包豪斯美學的微妙而令人回味的參考,例如美麗的編織爐灶讓人想起Anni的紡織品,墻壁和門上的幾何圖案讓人想起Josef和Anni的印刷品。

    It was in this spirit that in 2005 Nicholas Fox Weber, the Director of the Foundation, established Le Korsa to encompass the philanthropic initiatives of the Foundation in the region. Since then the Foundation and Le Korsa have provided support to rural Senegalese communities across the fields of culture, education and health. In 2015 they launched THREAD, a cultural centre for local inhabitants of the rural village of Sinthian designed pro bono by architecture firm Toshiko Mori, which since its establishment has fostered cultural exchange between local communities and international residents. In the field of education, the Foundation and Le Korsa last year constructed an elementary school in the village of Fass, designed once again by Toshiko Mori, the first school in a region of over 110 villages to provide secular education alongside traditional Quranic teaching. Both structures share subtle yet evocative references to Josef and Anni’s practices and Bauhaus aesthetics, such as the beautiful woven rooves reminiscent of Anni’s textiles and the geometric patterns on walls and doors recalling Josef and Anni’s prints.

    適用、經濟、美觀的絕佳詮釋 | 塞內加爾Tambacounda醫院第3張圖片

    適用、經濟、美觀的絕佳詮釋 | 塞內加爾Tambacounda醫院第4張圖片

    適用、經濟、美觀的絕佳詮釋 | 塞內加爾Tambacounda醫院第5張圖片

    醫院:在衛生領域,坦巴昆達醫院作為該地區唯一的大型醫院,是一個重要的資源,每年為來自周邊地區約20,000名病人提供服務,并延伸到馬里的邊界。醫生們以前一直在極其困難的條件下工作,原來的設計使公共空間嚴重擁擠。新的產科和兒科醫院的設計帶來了一種連貫性,并大大改善了病人及其探視家屬的舒適度。建筑的結構包括一個兩層呈曲線狀的空間,將兩個診所——兒科和婦產科集中在同一屋檐下,并提供約150個病床。建筑物的長度使工作人員和病人能夠順利通行,并在房間之間和S型曲線彎曲處形成的庭院中容納了多個公共空間,使其成為醫院真正的脊柱。

    The Hospital. In the field of health, the Tambacounda Hospital - the only major hospital in the region - is a vital resource servicing around 20,000 patients per year from the surrounding area, stretching across the border into Mali. The doctors had previously been working under extremely difficult conditions; with the original design leaving the communal spaces severely overcrowded. The design of the new Maternity and Paediatric Hospital brings a sense of coherence and greatly improves the comfort of patients and their visiting families. Herz’s structure comprises a two-storey building in a curvilinear form which brings two clinics – paediatrics and maternity – together under the same roof and offers approximately 150 hospital beds. The extensive length of the building allows for the smooth circulation of staff and patients and accommodates multiple communal spaces both between the rooms and in the courtyards formed by the bends of the S-curve, turning it into the truly social spine of the hospital.

    適用、經濟、美觀的絕佳詮釋 | 塞內加爾Tambacounda醫院第6張圖片

    適用、經濟、美觀的絕佳詮釋 | 塞內加爾Tambacounda醫院第7張圖片

    適用、經濟、美觀的絕佳詮釋 | 塞內加爾Tambacounda醫院第8張圖片

    Manuel Herz的設計:Herz的設計包括一些被動氣候設計創新,以應對當地極端天氣帶來的挑戰,并減少對空調的需求。該建筑的寬度只有7米,這一特點使所有房間都能通過自然交叉通風來冷卻。此外,他受mashrabiya啟發,使用了帶孔隙的格子狀磚墻,具有阻擋陽光和促進空氣流通的優點,同時也使醫院具有獨特的重復視覺主題和美麗的光影效果。雙層屋頂覆蓋了擴建部分,阻止了大部分的陽光直射,并制造了煙囪效應,將房間的熱量向上引出。

    Manuel Herz’s Design. Herz’s design includes several passive climate design innovations to combat the challenges posed by the extremities of the local weather, and to help forgo the need for air conditioning. The building is characterised by a narrow width of only seven metres, a feature which allows for all the rooms to be aired and cooled naturally through cross ventilation. In addition, his mashrabiya-inspired use of lattice-like brickwork with apertures has the advantages of blocking sun and facilitating air circulation, whilst also giving the hospital its distinctive recurrent visual motif and its beautiful play of light and shade. A second roof covers the primary roof of the extension, repelling most of the direct sunlight and creating a chimney effect which draws the heat upwards and out of the rooms below .

    適用、經濟、美觀的絕佳詮釋 | 塞內加爾Tambacounda醫院第9張圖片

    適用、經濟、美觀的絕佳詮釋 | 塞內加爾Tambacounda醫院第10張圖片

    一個合作項目:Herz在全階段都保持與當地領導人Magueye Ba博士合作,并依靠社區的專業知識,幾乎完全與Tambacounda和周圍村莊的工匠和工程師協作,從而幫助提供就業和支持農村經濟。該項目的整體性有助于為醫院以外的地區提供更多的基礎設施。Herz和Ba在早期階段設計了一個試驗性的外墻,以檢驗磚塊在氣候中的功能,隨后擴大到為附近的兒童建造一所小型的新學校。此外,Herz和他的妻子還設計了一個操場,這是在Tambacounda市建造的第一個操場。對當地景觀的敏感性也是這個多維項目的一個關鍵方面,Herz的設計盡量減少對當地的樹木的干擾。在產科和兒科醫院完工后,Herz將建造員工宿舍,吸引更多來自該市的醫生,其設計靈感來自Anni Albers的印刷品。

    A Collaborative Project. Herz has collaborated at all stages with local leader Dr. Magueye Ba and depended upon the expertise of the community, working almost exclusively with craftsmen and engineers from Tambacounda and the surrounding villages, and thereby helping to provide employment and support for the rural economy. The holistic nature of the project has helped generate further infrastructure for the area beyond the hospital; a test façade created at an early stage by Herz and Ba to examine how the bricks functioned in the climate was subsequently expanded to build a small new school for the neighbouring children. In addition Herz and his wife have designed a playground, the first-ever built in the city of Tambacounda. A sensitivity to the local landscape has also been a key facet of this multi-dimensional project, with Herz’s design endeavouring to create as little disruption as possible to the local trees. Following the completion of the Maternity and Paediatric Hospital, Herz will build staff quarters to help attract more doctors from the city, in a design inspired by a print by Anni Albers.

    適用、經濟、美觀的絕佳詮釋 | 塞內加爾Tambacounda醫院第11張圖片

    適用、經濟、美觀的絕佳詮釋 | 塞內加爾Tambacounda醫院第12張圖片

    適用、經濟、美觀的絕佳詮釋 | 塞內加爾Tambacounda醫院第13張圖片

    適用、經濟、美觀的絕佳詮釋 | 塞內加爾Tambacounda醫院第14張圖片

    建筑設計:Manuel Herz Architects
    類型:醫療建筑
    面積:2800 m2
    項目時間:2021年
    攝影:Iwan Baan
    開發者:Le Korsa
    國家:塞內加爾

    HOSPITAL•SENEGAL
    Architects: Manuel Herz Architects
    Area: 2800 m2
    Year: 2021
    Photographs: Iwan Baan
    Promoter: Le Korsa
    Country: Senegal

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