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    閱讀建筑:如何通過技巧把“看”變成“做”第1張圖片
    © Robert Livesey

    閱讀建筑:建筑的構成與思路
    Reading Architecture: How "Looking" Becomes "Making" Through Techniques of Analysis

    由專筑網小R編譯

    建筑并非偶然,建筑有著精心設計的平面與風格,需要呼應自然環境,表達質感,亦或是歷史上某種風格的表達,這些便是構成建筑的原因,建筑師可以通過分析、模式、關系,以及比例等不同的方式來表達建筑的構成,無論建筑師與否,在設計的時候都會有一種潛意識中的想法,那么,建筑就成為了自我定位的構思方式,這種構思方式可以從設計的成果中反映,這是人們對于宏觀世界的微觀表達。

    也許有人會說,建筑理論和建筑分析對于專業人士來說,其實很小兒科,是一種把自己的想法強加在他人身上的行為,不過其中的目標是分析建筑師對于設計的構思,而不是判斷人們是否喜歡這座建筑,更不是評判建筑成功與否的標準,因此很大程度而言,建筑師會向他人去證明設計的合理性,并且產生關乎哲學的爭論,但是閱讀的藝術應該在于這是一種容易被人所接納的方式,設計是公共領域,世界上只有很小一部分人在進行建筑創作,但是大部分人都會為之所影響,那么其中的構思從何處開始呢?本文從一本名為《Architecture Stuff》的書中節選了兩個部分,對兩座建筑進行簡要的分析,這便是個良好的開端,這本書展示了各種分析和圖示,也表達了對于公共建筑主題的闡釋,這也構成了具有層次感的思維方式,讓建筑的分析語言變得更加平易近人,每個人都能夠理解。

    Architecture is never an accident. It is a carefully planned out scheme of patterns and styles that respond to natural surroundings, celebrate materiality, and/or are referential of stylistic movements throughout history- all a means of understanding why things are the way that they are. There are different ways to understand how to analyze architecture, through the use of diagrams, patterns, relationships, and proportions to name a few. To both architects and laypeople alike, there’s a subconscious desire for a decision-making structure in design. As a result, architecture has become an exercise in self-positioning- a microcosmic reflection of the world around us as seen in the designs we build.
    Some might say that architecture theory and the analysis of a building is some sort of “inside joke” for the trained eye that forces itself upon the average person. The intent is to examine how architects arrive at their design, without judging if people like it, or if it is successful in its experiential qualities. Much of this results in architects justifying their designs to other architects and creating philosophical and self-referential debates between one another. But the art of reading should and can be easily digested by anyone. Design is a public domain, and considering only a small percentage of the world is responsible for the creation of buildings, every person on earth is impacted by them. So where to begin? If you’re unfamiliar with the world of analyzing architecture, this brief high-level analysis of two buildings taken from excerpts of a new book titled “Architecture Stuff” is a good place to begin. The book itself provides illustrative diagrams, photographs, and an analysis that shows observations and interpretations of common architectural themes that together create a layered density of ideas, all while making the language of architectural analysis informal, legible, and most importantly, accessible to everyone.


    母親住宅 / 文丘里
    Vanna Venturi House / Robert Venturi


    閱讀建筑:如何通過技巧把“看”變成“做”第2張圖片
    Venturi House Front Elevation. Image © Maria Buszek

    文丘里的母親之家是后現代極具代表性的住宅,同時也是文丘里最為著名的作品,從建筑的主立面就能夠看出建筑師的設計意圖,外部的元素在立面上下變動、壓縮、重疊,構成不同的層次,整個立面充滿了運動感,這座建筑最為著名的特征便是其屋面,這也許是對于Moretti的Girasole住宅的借鑒,這些小特征其實就本質而言都非常簡單,但是它們都很好地表達了這樣一種想法,那就是把這些參照元素放入很小的高度中。

    The Vanna Venturi House is one of the most well iconic homes of the postmodern era, and one of Robert Venturi’s most famous works in his oeuvre. To take a look at the front elevation of the home says much about Venturi’s design intent. It is “loaded with movement” as the exterior elements scale up and down, slide across the facade, compressing, overlapping, and creating different layers of transparency. One of the most famous characteristics of this house is the “dueling shed roofs”, perhaps a historical reference to Moretti’s Casa II Girasole. While these gestures are simple in nature, they collectively show that there was an idea to put many referential elements into a rather small elevation.

    閱讀建筑:如何通過技巧把“看”變成“做”第3張圖片
    Casa Il Girasole by Luigi Moretti. Image © Gabrielle Bascillico

    這座建筑看起來比較低矮,可能是表達了白色的低矮住宅的意圖,同時考慮了雙層墻裙,這讓人認為,一個樓層疊加在另一個樓層上,車行道路上的略微傾斜也讓人感覺到文丘里所表達的是帕特農神廟的流線。

    The house also appears to be a bit "squat" perhaps referencing the McKim, Mead and White Low House, and considering the double dado, It would be easy to believe that the house has been compressed with one story overlaid on another. The slight cant in the driveway also leaves little doubt that Venturi was referencing the cranked axis from the Propolea to the Parthenon.

    閱讀建筑:如何通過技巧把“看”變成“做”第4張圖片
    © Robert Livesey


    Grace農場 / SANAA
    Grace Farms / SANAA


    閱讀建筑:如何通過技巧把“看”變成“做”第5張圖片
    Site Plan. Image Courtesy of SANAA

    Grace農場是位于康涅狄格州的一座社區文化中心,這座建筑專注于自然、藝術、公正、社區,以及信仰,場地上的主要建筑名為“河樓”,它有著反射屋面和蛇形形態,建筑的形態比較簡單,但是建筑自身卻十分精致,同時建筑與景觀很好地結合在一起,纖細的建筑元素十分關鍵,柱子很輕薄,而屋面則有著拉伸般的感受,這也讓頂部的某些區域也變得十分輕盈。

    Grace Farms is a cultural community center located in New Canaan, Connecticut that focuses on the development of nature, the arts, justice, community, and faith. The main building on the site has been dubbed the "River Building" because of its reflective roof and general serpentine form. While simplistic in nature, the building itself is heavily and finely detailed and does an excellent job of integrating architecture with landscape. The slimness of architectural elements in this building is critical, as the columns are extremely thin, and the roof feels like a "wad of gum that has been stretched" to make certain areas of the canopy thin as well.

    閱讀建筑:如何通過技巧把“看”變成“做”第6張圖片
    © Robert Livesey

    周邊的景觀對于建筑而言也至關重要,尤其是來自展覽館其他部分的景觀,建筑師在不同的元素之中引入不同的視角,建筑有著傾斜的禮堂,參觀者可以看到寬闊的景色,在穿過圖書館、餐廳、茶室之后,人們會來到體育館,這里有著玻璃天窗,光線從上方而下,景觀更是一覽無余,每個空間都經過精心設計,每個房間都給使用者帶來不同的感受,這里有“深挖與淺挖、開放與封閉、陡坡與丘陵、對稱與不對稱、展廳與走廊”,它們分別形成對比與呼應。

    Views of the surrounding landscape are important to this building, especially the views to and from other parts of the pavilion. The design is careful to bring different views in each of the programmatic elements. Beginning in the sloped auditorium, visitors look out into the expansive landscape, and after walking through the library, dining room, and tea room, you end in the gymnasium where the glass windows act as clerestories allowing light to enter, and the final view is seen. The conditions in each space are elaborated to provide a different experience in each room. "Deep cut and shallow cut, open condition versus closed condition, steep hill versus rolling hill, symmetry versus asymmetry, and pavilion versus walkway."

    閱讀建筑:如何通過技巧把“看”變成“做”第7張圖片
    © Dean Kauffman

    除此之外,這些層次的觀察并不意味著可以直接復制使用,這樣就感覺是幾個不同的策略組合在一起構成一個設計方案,重要的是要理解,把“看”轉變成“做”,在理解、表達、設計建筑理念的時候,這一點至關重要,對于模式與特征的理解不僅僅體現在這兩個項目之中,每個項目都是如此,只要用心尋找,就都能夠發現建筑之間的元素關聯,比如母親之家與Grace農場之間的元素關聯,這種聯系并不一定存在于外觀與功能之中,而是它們通過一系列的元素,有機地進行組合與設計。

    It’s important to note that these layers of observation aren’t meant to be duplicated to create another project that feels like a collage of several design translations into one, but it’s important to learn that a way of looking can translate into a way of making. This is critical when understanding, translating, and designing ideas that are centered on architectural ideas. These understandings of patterns and gestures aren’t just identifiable in these two projects but in almost any building. Everywhere you look, you might be able to find that there are elements and relationships like those in the Venturi House or Grace Farms, not necessarily in how they look or how they perform in their programmatic functions, but how they are intelligently designed with an array of architectural elements, relationships, and/or methods.

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